large dogs for battle. The brutes could knock an armed man from his horse and dismember him. J By the late nineteenth century the passion for breeding led to the creation of private registries to protect prized bloodlines. The Kennel Club was formed in England in 1873, and eleven years later the American Kennel Club (AKC) was formed across the Atlantic. Today the AKC registers 150 breeds, the Kennel Club lists 196, and the Europe-based Federation Cynologique Internationale recognizes many more. Dog shows sprouted in the mid-1800s when unnec~ssaiyd'Ogsbegan vastly to outnumber working ones, as they do to this day. Unless, that is, you count companionship as a job. I In seventeenth-century England, dogs still worked, pulling carts, sleds, and ploughs, herding livestock, or working as turn-spits, powering wheels that turned beef and venison over open fires. But working dogs were not much loved and were usually hanged or drowned when they got old. 'Unnecessary' dogs meanwhile gained.
Nội dung chia sẻ: IELTSPracticeTests PeterMay.vinashare.net.net
large dogs for battle. The brutes could knock an armed man from his horse and dismember him. J By the late nineteenth century the passion for breeding led to the creation of private registries to protect prized bloodlines. The Kennel Club was formed in England in 1873, and eleven years later the American Kennel Club (AKC) was formed across the Atlantic. Today the AKC registers 150 breeds, the Kennel Club lists 196, and the Europe-based Federation Cynologique Internationale recognizes many more. Dog shows sprouted in the mid-1800s when unnec~ssaiyd'Ogsbegan vastly to outnumber working ones, as they do to this day. Unless, that is, you count companionship as a job. I In seventeenth-century England, dogs still worked, pulling carts, sleds, and ploughs, herding livestock, or working as turn-spits, powering wheels that turned beef and venison over open fires. But working dogs were not much loved and were usually hanged or drowned when they got old. 'Unnecessary' dogs meanwhile gained status among English royalty. King James I was said to love his dogs more than his subjects. Charles II was famous for playing with his dog at Council table, and his brother James had dogs at sea in 1682 when his ship was caught in a storm. As sailors drowned, he allegedly cried out, 'Save the dogs and Colonel 'Churchill!' could adapt to humans in charge. Puppies in particular would be hard to resist, as they are today. Thus was a union born and a process of domestication begun. F Over the millennia, admission of certain wolves and protodogs into human camps and exclusion of larger, more threatening ones led to the development of people-friendly breeds distinguishable from wolves by size, shape, coat, ears and markings. Dogs were generally smaller than wolves, their snouts ~ proportionally reduced. TIley would assist in the hunt, clean up camp by eating garbage, warn of danger, keep humans warm, and serve as food. Native Americans among others ate puppies, and in some societies it remains accepted practice. G By the fourth millennium BC Egyptian rock and j2o.t.tm drawings show dogs being put to work by men. Then, as now, the relationship was not without drawbacks.~ dogs r?J!p.$.d city streets, stealing food from people returning from market. Despite their penchant for misbehaviour, and sometimes bec;Ise of it, dogs keep turning up at all the important junctures in human history. -H In ancient Greece, 350 years before Christ, Aristotle described three types of domesticated dogs, including speedy Laconians used by the rich to chase and kill rabbits and deer. Three hundred years later, Roman warriors trained Test 1 29 Strategies: matching with paragraphs Read the text for gist, focusing on the key sentences, and think about how it is organized. Study the questions and underline the key words. Remember that the questions are not in the same order as the information in the text. Decide in which part of the text you are likely to find each answer, writing in any answers you can do from your first reading. For the remaining answers, look more closely at the text for clues: words and phrases with similar or related meanings to the key words in the questions. Strategies: selecting from a list Look at the four types of wrong answer in multiple-choice questions page 27. Decide in which part of the text the statements are likely to be: they may not be in the same order as the information in the text. Look for a paraphrase of each statement in the list, possibly in more than one part. Lightly cross off the list any statements which are contradicted by the text. Fill in the answers on your answer sheet in any order. 30 fELTS Practice Tests Questions 28-31 Improve your skills: locating answers 1 Quickly read the text. On what principle is it organized? 2 What are the key word~ in each of questions 28,29,30 and 31? 3 Which of questions 28":'31 would you expect to find answered: a near the beginning of the text? b somewhere in the middle of the text? c close to the end of the text? It- Check your answers on page 40 before you continue. Reading Passage 3 has ten paragraphs labelled A-I. Write the correct letters A-J in boxes 28-31 on your answer sheet. 28 Which paragraph explains how dogs became different in appearance from wolves? 29 Which paragraph describes the classification of dogs into many different types? 30 Which paragraph states the basic similarity between wolves and dogs? 31 Which paragraph gives examples of greater human concern for animals than for people? Questions 32-35 Improve your skills: finding references in the text 1 Which half of the text discusses a wolves and early humans? b dogs and early civilizations? 2 In which half will you probably find statements A-H? 3 Here are extracts from the text relating to statements A and B. A:'the similar . size of wolf packs and early human clans' B:'before the development of . permanent human settlements' For each, find a second reference to confirm your answer. . Check your answers on page 40 before you continue. Strategies: matching lists Study the list of questions. For each one, highlight the key words. Study the option list, e.g. of nationalities A-F. For each one, scan the passage for it and highlight that part of the text. For each of A-F, ask yourself simple questions, e.g.'Did the . use them to . ?; and answer them by looking at the part you have highlighted. Look out for words similar to the key words in the question. Remember that some of A-F may be used more than once or not at all. Which FOUR of the following statements are made in the text? Choose FOUR letters from A-H and write them in boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet. A In a typical camp there were many more wolves than humans. B Neither the wolves nor the humans lived in one place for long. e Some wolves learned to obey human leaders. D Humans chose the most dangerous wolves to help them hunt. E There was very little for early humans to eat. F Wolves got food from early humans. G Wolves started living with humans when agriculture began. H Early humans especially liked very young wolves. Questions 36-40 Improve your skills: scanning the text 1 In which paragraph is each of A-F mentioned? Which nationality is mentioned in more than one paragraph? Which is not mentioned? 2 Ask yourself two questions about each of A-F. . Check your answers on page 40 before you continue. From the information in the text, indicate who used dogs in the ways listed below (Questions 36-40). Write the correct letters A-F in boxes 36--40 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once. Used by A the Greeks B the French e ,the Egyptians D the Romans E the English F the Native Americans 36 m war 37 as a source of energy 38 as food 39 to hunt other animals 40 to work with farm animals Test 1 31 Academic Writing 1 hour The writing test consists of two tasks. You should attempt both tasks. Writing Task 1 . Improve your skills: understanding a graph Study the graph below and think about the following. You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The graph below shows four countries ofresidence of overseas students in Australia. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words. Number of 40 students in 1000, SELECTED COUNTRIES OF RESIDENCE OF ViSiTOR ARRIVALS FOR EDUCATION a What is the overall topic? b Look at the key for the four lines. Which groups of people are being compared? What do the numbers on the vertical axis show? c What does the horizontal axis show? d Can you identify a general trend in each graph? When was the trend most or least noticeable? e Which period shows a deviation from the trend for some countries? . Check your answers on page 41 before you continue. Question Strategies: selecting main features from a graph, chart, or table In Writing Task 1, you do not need to describe all the information given.To summarize, you must select the main features from what is shown. Information is often given in the form of a graph, a chart, or a table. Read any headings, key and sources for the data to understand what it relates to. Read labels carefully, paying special attention to horizontal and vertical axes, column and row headings. The data may show differences or changes over time, between places, or between groups of people.Try to identify significant contrasts, similarities, or trends. KEY 30 Indonesia --- Hong Kong Malaysia Singapore • • • • --- • • • • 20 !O () II 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 Year ended 30 June 32 IELTS Practice Tests Composition Strategies: reporting main features Decide which points you will include and how you will organize them. State the topic and overall content of the graph. Describe and where relevant compare the main features of the data. Avoid repetition and do not try to give reasons. Describe changes and trends using appropriate language: the number rose/fell slightly/sharply, there was a steady/rapid increase/decrease in the number. Write numbers as percentages (ten per cent), fractions (a quarter, two-thirds), or expressions (nine out of ten, three times as many). Use approximate phrases such as roughly, over, a little more than,just under. Conclude by outlining the overall trends. Improve your skills: putting statistics into words- 1 Choose the best way to express these statistics. a Put these percentages into words: 98%, 22.5% b State each of these fractions in two ways: 1/6,4/5, 1/20 c Compare each pair of numbers in two ways: 90 and 30, 17 and 34. d Write these numbers using approximate phrases: 51 %, 999, 9.5%, 135. 2 Look at the graph in Writing Task 1. Describe the changes between 1982 and 1992 for the countries shown. • Check your answers on page 41 before you continue. Test 1 33 ------ ---- -- -------- -- -- -- ---------- Writing Task 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic. Air traffic is increasingly leading to more noise,.